Tuesday, December 1, 2009

United States v. Low Hong, 261 F.73 (5th Cir. 1919) Is No Precedent on the Question of What is an Article II “Natural Born Citizen”

There are some blogs that are citing the case of United States v. Low Hong, 261 F.73 (5th Cir. 1919), as the latest word on what a “natural born Citizen” is. Their position is that this case proves that a child born in the United States even to alien parents is a “natural born Citizen.” The issue that was before the Fifth Circuit Court of Appeals was whether a petitioner was entitled to be discharged from immigration custody on his habeas corpus petition when he showed that the government was holding him in custody pending a deportation hearing before the Secretary of Labor (who handled immigration matters then) under the Immigration Act, § 17 (Comp. St. 1918, § 4289 1/4ii), and other sections relating to excluding and deporting persons from the country, which is expressly applicable only to aliens. Affirming the judgment of the district court which granted the petition and his release, the Court held that since the government had admitted that the petitioner was a citizen (which the government did not), it could not hold him in immigration custody and had to release him.

Low Hong alleged in his amended habeas petition that he was born in the United States and that he was a citizen thereof. The government did not deny his allegation that he was born in the United States. But it also did not admit that he was a citizen. The government’s position was that there was no factual dispute and that the case dealt with only a legal question as to petitioner’s citizenship which was not properly before the Court on a habeas corpus petition which it said petitioner filed prematurely. The Court ruled that the government did not dispute that petitioner was born in the United States. It therefore also ruled that the government admitted petitioner was a citizen. The Court also ruled that the statute allowing excluding and deporting aliens applied only to aliens. The Court found that the government’s admission that Low Hong was a citizen was also an admission by the government that he could not be held in immigration custody pending a deportation hearing before the Secretary of Labor. The Court said that since the government admitted Low Hong was a citizen, the Secretary of Labor had no jurisdiction or authority to detain him in immigration custody pending his deportation hearing. Low Hong therefore had to be released.

There are two errors with the Low Hong decision. First, the government never admitted that petitioner was a citizen. Rather, it only admitted that he was born in the United States and took the position that the status of his citizenship was “nothing but a question of law” yet to be decided. While the decision does not make any mention of petitioner’s parents, they were probably Chinese aliens who could not naturalize in the United States because of the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 (among other things, made Chinese immigrants who were in the United States permanent aliens by prohibiting them from becoming citizens through naturalization) which were not repealed until the 1943 Magnuson Act which permitted Chinese who were already in the United States to naturalize and thereby become United States citizens under the Fourteenth Amendment. We also do not know if petitioner’s parents met the same factual scenario as did the parents of Wong Kim Ark in United States v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) (the Court decided the case based only “upon the facts agreed by the parties” and that the “necessary effect” of its decision was to declare “a child born in the United States, of parents of Chinese descent, who, at the time of his birth, are subjects of the emperor of China, but have a permanent domicile and residence in the United States, and are there carrying on business, and are not employed in any diplomatic or official capacity under the emperor of China, becomes at the time of his birth a citizen of the United States”). Id. 169 U.S. at 705. Hence, the Court on its own took the conceded fact that the petitioner was born in the United States and added that the government also conceded that he was a citizen.

The second error that the Court made is in declaring the petitioner a “natural-born citizen” on the record that it had before it. In Low Hong, the issue was not whether the petitioner was an Article II “natural born Citizen.” Rather, the issue was whether he could be held in immigration detention pending deportation if he was an admitted citizen as the Court perceived the government to have conceded. The Court in dicta then said that “[t]he averments of the amended petition show that the appellee is a natural-born citizen of the United States,” citing United States v. Wong Kim, 169 U.S. 649 (1898). The reference to “natural-born citizen” was dicta because the question of whether Low Hong was a “natural born Citizen” was not before the Court. Without any opportunity for the government to even address the issue, the Court concluded that Low Hong was a citizen because the government did not contest the petitioner’s allegation that he was born in the United States. Low Hong only needed to be a born United States citizen under the Fourteenth Amendment or some Congressional Act to avoid detention and deportation. There was no need for Low Hong to also be declared an Article II “natural born Citizen.”

The Low Hong Court’s citing Wong Kim Ark also does not make the decision a precedent for the meaning of Article II “natural born Citizen.” Wong Kim Ark, also presented with a person born in the United States to alien Chinese parents, did not declare Wong a “natural born citizen” but rather only a “citizen” of the United States under the Fourteenth Amendment. The Wong Kim Ark Court never connected Wong’s citizen status to an Article II “natural born Citizen.” The Court also did not say that there was no difference between a Fourteenth Amendment born citizen and an Article II “natural born Citizen.”

The Low Hong Court did not explain what made Low Hong a “natural born citizen” as opposed to just a plain “citizen” which is what he alleged in his amended habeas petition. Hence, the Court’s gratuitous statement that Low Hong was a “natural-born citizen” was not only not addressed by the parties or analyzed in any way by the Court but also has no basis in law or fact. In Low Hong, the Court did not even perceive citizenship to be in issue. We surely cannot use the decision for any precedent on the meaning of an Article II “natural born Citizen.” Its conclusory statement regarding Low Hong being a “natural- born citizen” is therefore not binding on any court.

The Constitution, Congressional Acts, United States Supreme Court decisions, and the Fourteenth Amendment itself also show that the Low Hong court was wrong in declaring the petitioner a “natural born Citizen.” We cannot reasonably deny that the Constitution makes a distinction between a “citizen” and a “natural born Citizen.” Article II itself, in specifying the eligibility requirements, clearly spells out that there is a difference between a “citizen” and a “natural born Citizen,” for the former was grandfathered eligible to be President up to the time of the adoption of the Constitution and the latter represented the new standard for Presidential eligibility for births after the adoption of the Constitution. The “Citizen” grandfather clause is now obsolete. The Constitution at Article I, III, IV and at Amendment XI, XIV, XV, XIX, XXIV, and XXVI also mentions “Citizen” and not “natural born Citizen.” Hence, the only place that the Constitution refers to a “natural born Citizen” is in Article II, Section 1, clause 5.

Even Congress, throughout our history has distinguished between a “Citizen” and a “natural born Citizen.” See the Naturalization Act of 1790 (children born abroad to citizen parents were deemed “natural born citizens”), 1795 (repealed the 1790 act and deemed the children born abroad to citizen parents just “citizens”), and all such acts that followed to the present (8 U.S.C. Section 1401 to 1409). Except for the Act of 1790, Congress has never legislated on the status of “natural born Citizen.” Some members of Congress have made various attempts to define “natural born Citizen,” but except for Senate Resolution 511 (declared McCain who was born in Panama to military United States citizen parents a “natural born citizen” but which is non-binding), these attempts have all failed. One of these attempts is worth mentioning because it pertains to children born in the United States. After H.J. Res. 88 failed to make it out of committee, Sen. Nickles (OK) along with Landrieu (LA) and Inhofe (OK) brought forward S. 2128 in February 25, 2004, the Natural Born Citizen Act, a bill to define the term “natural born Citizen” as used in Article II of the Constitution of the United States to establish eligibility for the Office of President. Paragraph (1) of the bill repeats the same language that is found in the Fourteenth Amendment that pertains to born citizens and declares those persons “natural born citizens.” This attempt at amending Article II’s “natural born Citizen” clause by declaring that Fourteenth Amendment born citizens are also “natural born citizens” shows that there are members of Congress who recognize that there is a difference between an Article II “natural born Citizen” and a Fourteenth Amendment born “citizen of the United States.”

The meaning of an Article II “natural born Citizen” has been addressed by various United States Supreme Court and other court cases. These cases show that the Framers did not use English common law to define what a “natural born Citizen” was but rather natural law and the law of nations which became federal common law. English common law continued to be used in the several states to provide the law on property, contracts, torts, inheritance, criminal substance and procedure, and other areas, but not the law on federal matters such as national citizenship. In defining a “natural born citizen,” these cases made specific reference to the citizenship of the child’s parents at the time of the child’s birth. Low Hong did not cite any of these cases or even explain why their definition of a “natural born Citizen” should not be followed. These cases have defined a “natural born Citizen” as a child born in the country to citizen parents which is the definition provided by Emer de Vattel in his influential and celebrated treatise, The Law of Nations, Or, Principles of the Law of Nature, bk 1, c. 19, sec. 212 (1758 French edition) (1759 first English translation). These cases are The Venus, 12 U.S. (8 Cranch) 253, 289 (1814) (Marshall, C.J., concurring) (“Vattel, who, though not very full to this point, is more explicit and more satisfactory on it than any other whose work has fallen into my hands, says, 'the citizens are the members of the civil society; bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority, they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or indigenes, are those born in the country, of parents who are citizens. Society not being able to subsist and to perpetuate itself but by the children of the citizens, those children naturally follow the condition of their fathers, and succeed to all their rights.'”) (emphasis in the original); Dred Scott v. Sandford, 60 U.S. 393 (1857) (which also took out of Vattel’s definition the reference to “fathers” and “father” and replaced it with “parents” and “person,” respectively, when it quoted Vattel thus: “ ‘The citizens are the members of the civil society; bound to this society by certain duties, and subject to its authority; they equally participate in its advantages. The natives, or natural-born citizens, are those born in the country, of parents who are citizens. As society cannot perpetuate itself otherwise than by the children of the citizens, those children naturally follow the condition of their parents, and succeed to all their rights.’” Again: “ ‘I say, to be of the country, it is necessary to be born of a person who is a citizen; for if he be born there of a foreigner, it will be only the place of his birth, and not his country. The inhabitants, as distinguished from citizens, are foreigners who are permitted to settle and stay in the country.’ (Vattel, Book 1, cap. 19, p. 101.)” (emphasis in original); Shanks v. Dupont, 28 U.S. 242, 245 (1830) (same definition without citing Vattel); Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162, 167-68 (1875) (same definition without citing Vattel); Ex parte Reynolds, 1879, 5 Dill., 394, 402 (same definition and cites Vattel); United States v. Ward, 42 F.320 (C.C.S.D.Cal. 1890) (same definition and cites Vattel); U.S. v. Wong Kim Ark, 169 U.S. 649 (1898) (favorably citing Minor v. Happersett).

The case of Minor v. Happersett, 88 U.S. 162 (1874) deserves special attention. It distinguished between “natives, or “natural born citizens” on the one hand and “citizens” on the other. The United States Supreme Court in Minor said that “[a]t common-law, with the nomenclature of which the framers of the Constitution were familiar,” the “natives, or natural-born citizens” were “all children born in a country of parents who were its citizens…” It added that “[s]ome authorities go further and include as citizens children born within the jurisdiction without reference to the citizenship of their parents. As to this class there have been doubts, but never as to the first….” The Court was very specific in defining “natives, or natural born citizens” as requiring not only birth in the country but also citizen parents and in stating that the Framers would have defined the terms as such. In mentioning “some authorities” going further in defining “citizens” (without reference to the citizenship of the child’s parents), the Court surely did not say that the Framers maintained any such position on citizenship. Rather, the Court was referring to “some” commentators who had made such an argument. The Court also did not say that these other “authorities” considered these other children to be “natural born citizens.”

As we can see, these cases adopted the natural law and law of nations definition of a “natural born citizen.” Reliance on this definition would have been expected, for the Framers were heavily influenced by natural law and the law of nations as expounded upon by Cicero, Grotius, Pufendorf, Burlamaqui, and their favorite, Vattel. The law of nations which was based on natural law was received and adopted by the new nation as its federal common law after the Constitution was adopted. Citizenship being a topic that affected the relations among nations, the Founder and Framers would have, as did the United States Supreme Court, looked to the law of nations as the authoritative and binding source for providing any definition of national citizenship. There is no United States Supreme Court case that to this day has changed this original definition of a “natural born Citizen” provided by Vattel and recognized and confirmed by these Supreme Court cases.

Nor did the Fourteenth Amendment change the meaning of an Article II “natural born Citizen.” It did not modify "natural born Citizen" status as originally conceived by the Framers and as confirmed by the above-cited Supreme Court cases. Article II mentions "natural born Citizen" and "Citizen" while the Fourteenth Amendment mentions "Citizen." The Constitution must be read as one whole document and all its words must be given meaning. The framers of the Fourteenth Amendment were well aware of the Constitution using the words “natural born Citizen” and “Citizen.” Hence, when the Fourteenth Amendment says "Citizen," it must be referring to the same "Citizen" found in Article II and in other parts of the Constitution and not to Article II's "natural born Citizen." The words “natural born” must be given a meaning all of their own. Also noteworthy in understanding the amendment is Rep. John Bingham, who in the House on March 9, 1866, in commenting on the Civil Rights Act of 1866 which was the precursor to the Fourteenth Amendment, stated: "[I] find no fault with the introductory clause, which is simply declaratory of what is written in the Constitution, that every human being born within the jurisdiction of the United States of parents not owing allegiance to any foreign sovereignty is, in the language of your Constitution itself, a natural born citizen. . . . ” John A. Bingham, (R-Ohio) US Congressman, March 9, 1866 Cong. Globe, 39th, 1st Sess., 1291 (1866), Sec. 1992 of U.S. Revised Statutes (1866). Additionally, we cannot simply assume that the Fourteenth Amendment amended Article II. There is simply no such evidence that the Fourteenth Amendment framers did or even intended to amend the meaning of an Article II "natural born Citizen." Amending the Constitution is a very serious and solemn undertaking. We surely cannot have constitutional amendments by assumptions or implications. Rather, Article V of the Constitution must be followed to have any such amendments to the Constitution.

Obama has claimed that he is a “native born citizen.” The above-cited authorities and case law show that under natural law and the law of nations which became federal common law, "native born citizen" meant the same thing as "natural born citizen." But over the years, "native born citizen" took on a different meaning. It was later used to show that under the Fourteenth Amendment someone became a citizen by being born on U.S. soil rather than by being naturalized. Hence, when used in the modern sense, "native born citizen" does not necessarily mean the same thing as a "natural born Citizen." Hence, Obama stating that he is a “native born citizen” does not necessarily mean that he is saying that he is a “natural born Citizen.”

We know that an Article II "Citizen" was grandfathered to be eligible to be President and that the grandfather clause is now obsolete. Hence, today one must be a "natural born Citizen" to be eligible to be President. Being a "Citizen" is not sufficient. A "Citizen" is defined by the Fourteenth Amendment and Congressional Acts. An Article II "natural born Citizen" is defined by federal common law (emanating from natural law and the law of nations) which provides that it is a child born in the country to a citizen mother and father.

Obama fails to meet the “natural born Citizen” eligibility test because when he was born in 1961 (where ever that may be), he was not born to a United States citizen mother and father. At his birth, his mother was a United States citizen. But under the British Nationality Act of 1948, his father, who was born in the British colony of Kenya, was born a Citizen of the United Kingdom and Colonies (CUKC) which by descent made Obama himself a CUKC. Prior to Obama’s birth, Obama’s father neither intended to nor did he become a United States citizen. Being temporarily in the United States only for purpose of study and with the intent to return to Kenya, his father did not intend to nor did he becomes even a legal resident or immigrant to the United States.

Obama may be a plain born “citizen of the United States” under the Fourteenth Amendment (if he was born in Hawaii). But he is not an Article II "natural born Citizen," for upon Obama's birth his father was a British subject and Obama himself by descent was also the same. Hence, Obama was born subject to a foreign power. Obama lacks the birth status of natural sole and absolute allegiance and loyalty to the United States which only the President and Commander in Chief of the Military and Vice President must have at the time of birth. Being born subject to a foreign power, he lacks Unity of Citizenship and Allegiance to the United States from the time of birth which assures that required degree of natural sole and absolute birth allegiance and loyalty to the United States, a trait that is constitutionally indispensable in a President and Commander in Chief of the Military. Like a naturalized citizen who despite taking an oath later in life of sole allegiance to the United States cannot be President because of being born subject to a foreign power, Obama too cannot be President.

Mario Apuzzo, Esq.
185 Gatzmer Avenue
Jamesburg, New Jersey 08831
December 1, 2009


Incredulous said...

The bots froth over opinions (dicta) as long as it supports their notion. Lately they're trying to say the grandfather clause was only written for Alexander Hamilton so all the founders could be POTUS (bunk, because he never ran for POTUS and Paine also was not born in the US, and the clause was useful until Zac Taylor) and that a letter by John Jay proves the founders considered themselves NBCs (bunk again since they considered themselves citizens who had abjured allegiance to Britain. Some called themselves "Virginians" and such).

In any case, none of them can simply explain what the word OR means in the first part of A2S1C5.

Unknown said...

NOTICE : On Tuesday, 1 December, 2009, the thirteen member Monroe County, Tennessee Grand Jury is expected to return a "true bill" against Barack Obama on charges of treason. Retired Navy Commander Walter Fitzpatrick III will present the evidence behind his treason complaint against Obama. Godspeed!

Guy4013 said...

Thanks Mario for clearing up 'Low Hong.

I had assumed some government lawyer anxious to get home at 5:00 just told the court that Low Hong was a natural born citizen to close the case and go home. No legal study was made to make any such statement.

The government admitting anything means nothing to me because we have so many doofus lawyers working in government.

Thanks again and keep up your good work.

Unknown said...

Mr Apuzo,

Is there a remedy for the puntive appointed justice, when your question is before SCOTUS? To me there is conflicted intrests. If not, will it be the cowardice reason for not hearing the question?
This is the greatest means test that our founders and justices had forseen for us people. We people like you and your clients, like me and others, just little people we are. Can you imagine the details in the thought process for us people? All for our protection, for our secured liberties, for our secured God inheirited rights.

Mr. Apuzo. I can not thank you enough.


smrstrauss said...

Re: "Lately they're trying to say the grandfather clause was only written for Alexander Hamilton so all the founders could be POTUS (bunk, because he never ran for POTUS..."

He would have run. There was this duel.

In any case, Hamilton was not a Natural Born Citizen and many of the framers, one being Washington, wanted him to at least be eligible to be president.

Mario Apuzzo, Esq. said...


It is pretty absurd to try to limit a Constitutional provision which has application for all places and all times by trying to limit its scope by some folklore.

James said...

Hamilton could have ran for POTUS, and would have been allowed because he was Grandfathered in. Hamilton was not born on US Soil, but was eligible to run. The proof of this contention that someone could run when not born in this country is under grandfather clause of the Constitution. This was proven in the 1796 Election: James Iredell - He was born in England but was nevetheless on the ballot.

Unfortunately, I have not been able to find an example when candidate qualifications on "Natural Born" citizenship have been questioned because of the parents other than Obama.

Chester Arthur apparently had the same problem, but they never brought the parentage issue up nor was ever considered.

Obama's case is indeed a precedent and it is first time where the public has questioned whether a person born with a alien parent is truly qaulified to be the POTUS.

Unfortunately, we never get a true resolution in this matter.

Incredulous said...

BTW the Washington Times Apuzzo ad must be making the bots sweat, because they’re trying to come up with some pretty ridiculous rebuttals, such as the one… “even if his father was British since he was born on US soil that negates that”…

Kenya was colonized before BHO Sr.’s father was born in 1895. BHO Sr. was born in UKC in 1936, he was therefore a British Citizen BY BIRTH, so the exceptions for BHO Jr. being born in the US to a father who was a British Citizen by descent only, do not apply, because BHO Sr was a British Citizen by Birth. Further, BHO Sr was a UKC gov’t employee, so that only doubly validates that no exceptions apply, meaning that BHO Jr. was indeed a British Citizen By Descent because his father was a British Citizen by birth and also a gov’t employee.

So, sorry bots, just because BHOJr was born in the USA does not erase his being born a British Citizen because his daddy was a British Citizen by birth because his grand-daddy was a British citizen (UKC) and he (BHO Sr) was born in Kenya UKC.

And the other dumb reaction to the enabler ad I read was on the order of (approximately) “If we assume he could be British and therefore ineligible, then any other nation could come along and just forcibly give their citizenship to a Natural Born Citizen and just make them ineligible too”

jayjay said...


Right you are ... the Flying Monkeys are getting more and more desperate as they see their boy sliding down - and down - and down ... sort of like the Wicked Witch of the West in the Wizard of Oz story they've all been playing in!

Perhaps his "beautiful wickedness" will be "... melting, melting ..." also.

cfkerchner said...

Yes, this one is making them sweat, indeed. Close to 18,500 hits at And I can tell by their comments in various places, they are not enjoying it. :-) Their Chicago-land prophet and tactics guru Saul Alinsky says, measure the success of an action by the opponent's reaction! ;-) And reacting they are. So this ad hit the bull's eye and the OBOTS are not liking it. :-)

You can see the whole series of ads we've run to-date at:

And if any of you are in a position to help with funding to insert more of these ads, stop on buy at:

Charles Kerchner
Lead Plaintiff
Kerchner v Obama & Congress

Unknown said...

Obots-in-overdrive & even your "run-of-the-mill", garden variety obscurantist would be well-advised to (re)acquaint themselves with this bit of instruction & the man behind it- before sounding off on the Article II Sec 1

Justice Joseph Story was born in Massachusetts. in 1779. He graduated 2nd in his class from Harvard in 1798. Story was admitted to the bar in 1801. He would later go on to serve in the Mass.House of Representatives and also represent Mass. in the U.S. congress. He was nominated to the Supreme Court by President James Madison and he took his oath of office in November of 1811 at the age of 32. To date he remains the youngest ever to serve on the Supreme Court. Many of Justice Story’s opinions are still widely cited to this date.
Story knew that the preservation of the Republic and the Constitution relied on adherence to the original intent of our Founding Fathers. For his resolve in this cause, he was both admired and despised by both parties of Congress during his tenure on the court.
Joseph Story served on the Supreme Court until his death in 1845 and during which time; he was elected as overseer of Harvard University. Story is considered as the main founder of ‘Harvard Law School’ which was open for teaching in 1829. He would remain in the same position as overseer while he also served as a professor of law, a position he held until his death.
During Story’s tenure at Harvard and until his death, there were 12 published Commentaries on wide ranging aspects of American law. Three of these volumes were on the constitution and his works won him an international reputation as one of the most renowned constitutional scholars of the time.
In his works Volume 3, Section 1472-73 of ‘The Founders Constitution: Commentaries on the Constitution’ originally published in 1833 Story writes of the qualifications of those who wish to attain election into the executive branch as laid out in Art II S 1 Cl 5 of the constitution

§ 1473. It is indispensable, too, that the president should be a natural born citizen of the United States; or a citizen at the adoption of the constitution, and for fourteen years before his election. This permission of a NATURALIZED citizen to become president is an EXCEPTION from the great fundamental policy of all governments, to EXCLUDE foreign influence from their executive councils and duties. It was doubtless introduced (for it has now become by lapse of time merely nominal, and will soon become wholly EXTINCT out of respect to those distinguished revolutionary patriots, who were born in a foreign land, and yet had entitled themselves to high honors in their adopted country. A positive exclusion of them from the office would have been unjust to their merits, and painful to their sensibilities. But the general propriety of the exclusion of foreigners, in common cases, will scarcely be doubted by any sound statesman. It cuts off all chances for ambitious foreigners, who might otherwise be intriguing for the office; and interposes a barrier against those corrupt interferences of foreign governments in executive elections..

Mario Apuzzo, Esq. said...


Hence, we can see the significant impact Article II’s “Citizen” grandfather clause had on who could be eligible to be President during the early years of our Republic. It allowed those persons who at the time of the adoption of the Constitution were not “natural born Citizens” but rather naturalized citizens in one of the colonies, one of the several states, or in the United States to be so eligible. This included: (1) adults who were born in the colonies and were therefore “natural born subjects” of the British Crown and who became “citizens of the United States” by adhering to the Revolution (this group included the Founding Fathers who went on to become President); (2) adults who were born abroad and who became “citizens of the United States” by naturalizing or inhabiting in the colonies and adhering to the Revolution (this could have included Alexander Hamilton if he had run and become President) or by naturalizing under the laws of one of the several new states; and (3) infants who were born in the colonies or one of the several new states or abroad to alien parents who naturalized as described in categories (1) and (2) above. All those becoming “citizens of the United States” in groups (1) and (2) above become so through “naturalization,” for they were not born “citizens of the United States” but became so later in life by either adhering to the Revolution or by formal naturalization after the Revolution. Hence, since these parents were all naturalized, their children also needed to be naturalized. I will be writing an essay to further explain this point.

But after the Constitution was adopted, we know that to best provide for Posterity, the Framers decided that a Presidential contender born after its adoption would have to be a “natural born Citizen.” As I have shown in various essays on this blog, this meant after the adoption of the Constitution born in the country to citizen parents which parents would have comprised of (1) an original citizen father and his spouse, (2) a citizen father, who descended from an original citizen father and his spouse, and his spouse, (3) a father and his spouse who became first generation citizens by naturalization under the laws of the United States, or (4) a citizen father, who descended from such first generation naturalized citizen father and his spouse, and his spouse. Given the changes in our Constitution (the 14th Amendment being passed) and immigration and nationality laws, today it means two parents who have acquired their citizenship by the Fourteenth Amendment, Congressional Act, or naturalization laws.

Mario Apuzzo, Esq.

Erica said...

There's at least one O-bot, SMRSTRAUSS, amongst us here. I've researched him and discivered that he has left comments on virtually every conservative blog and news site on the internet.

One blogger said this of SMRSTRAUSS:

"With a little bit of work, I was able to find out this O-bot was likely Obama Superdelegate from DC, Shadow Senator Paul Strauss."

jayjay said...


Sounds like a genuine probably.

"Shadow Senator" is merely a polite term for "lobbyist" as he's trying to get DC accepted as a state so he can be a read Senator and get all those perks.

The guy had a DUI conviction (2x legal limit) in 2008 but got off east ... lefty judge no doubt.

But yeah, he's all over most of the pro-Obot blogs with his nonsense. There's a pic of him on Wikipedia.

Good sluething, trooper Dan!!

Carlyle said...

Here is a trick question for Obots. If you REALLY believed in the legitimacy of your candidate, why do you get so lathered up whenever someone mentions the topic?

It is really easy and quick to tell, for sure, one way or another.

jayjay said...


My keyboard is getting as bad as Barry's TOTUS ... please overlood the typos ...

And you might even note THIS bit of Christmas Cheer for the "powers than wannabe" which even has a pertinent quote from one of the founders of natural law: